Xml Matters #32: The Xom Java Xml Api

A rigorously correct tree-oriented XML model

David Mertz, Ph.D.
Formalizer, Gnosis Software, Inc.
November 2003

In general outline, Elliotte Rusty Harold's XOM is yet another object-oriented XML API, somewhat in the style of DOM. However, there are a number of features that set XOM apart, and that Harold argues are important design elements. Chief among these is a rigorous insistence on maintaining invariants in in-memory objects so that an XOM instance can always be serialized to correct XML. As well, XOM aims at a greater simplicity and regularity than other Java XML APIs.


There are a number of different general attitudes developers have towards the XML APIs they develop. Stream-oriented APIs like SAX, libxml, SSAX and expat aim towards parsimony firstly--make it fast, make it work in little memory, and make few assumptions about the overall document structure. Moreover, stream-oriented APIs can be handled in a very procedural style, which is nice for C programming, where objects are not ubiquitous.

In contrast, tree- or object-oriented APIs generally create an in-memory image of an XML document, translated into some sort of object-oriented (or at least hierarchical, e.g. SXML) rendition. Walking, filtering, and transforming XML proxy objects somehow utilizes the native syntax of a programming language. XSLT can also be considered an API of sorts, and its functional/declarative model is different from either, but let us skip consideration of XSLT for this installment.

Among the tree-oriented APIs, several divergent design goals come to the fore. Libraries like gnosis.xml.objectify, ElementTree, REXML, SXML, XML::Grove and JDOM pretty much aim at shaping XML into the most "native" seeming objects possible for their respective programming languages--the goal in each of this is to avoid needing to think about the fact your data started out as XML; it is just another object to you.

At the other end of the scale, DOM almost completely eschews any concern with the particular programming language DOM methods might be invoked in. While the designers of DOM tended to come from a Java background more than others, DOM does not really feel any more unnatural in other languages than it is in Java. On the other hand, DOM suffers terribly from the weight of design-by-committee: the methods are too numerous, inconsistently named, and have poor orthogonality. Making things still worse, a DOM object is not entirely guaranteed to be serializable into XML; at some edge cases you can create "non-well-formed" DOM objects in memory (requiring extra checks and behaviors for serialization).

The closest analogue of XOM is DOM, and to an extent JDOM. However XOM aims to remedy the problems of DOM by starting from a fresh design, valuing orthogonality, and centralizing control of the API in a single expert (the abovementioned Mr. Harold). XOM is basically prety Java-focussed, even though a Python implementation also exists (but seems to have little benefit over other techniques in Python). But the primary goal of XOM is not to be "true to Java," but rather to be "true to XML." Harold's goal is to capture and enforce the precise infoset of XML, in a minimal set of relevant object methods.

There are two sides to the XML-focused orientation of XOM. On the one hand, it is impossible to create nodes that violate XML rules--for example with disallowed tag names, or with null bytes in the content (constraints not checked by most APIs). On the other hand, XOM provides only methods that operate at the same conceptual level as XML itself--for example, serialization is only as XML, CDATA sections are not retained as separate nodes, and XML attribute order is ignored.

A First Application

As a start at getting the feel of XOM, I decided to write the same little application I wrote in SSAX for the last installment. The utility Outline takes an XML document as input, and produces a summary of it in an outline style, displaying the initial portion of the longer text sections for context. Moreover, namespaces are dropped from tag names, and only the local portion is displayed. This utility is not particularly complicated or compelling, but it does cover the basics of walking trees of children and attributes.

My test XML document is a highly reduced version of a recent developerWorks article. The document looks like:

An XML document with most XML features

$ cat example.xml
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<?xml-stylesheet type="text/css"
      href="http://gnosis.cx/publish/programming/dW.css" ?>
<dw-document xmlns:dw="http://www.ibm.com/developerWorks/">
  <title>The Twisted Matrix Framework</title>
  <author name="David Mertz, Ph.D.">
    <bio>David thinks it's turtles all the way down...</bio>
    <dw:heading refname="" toc="yes">Introduction</dw:heading>
      Sorting through Twisted Matrix is reminiscent of the old story
      about blind men and elephants. Twisted Matrix has many
      capabilities within it, and it takes a bit of a gestalt switch
      to <i>get</i> a good sense of why they are all there.

The output I want from my utility is:

An outline display of example.xml

$ java Outline example.xml
  <author name='David Mertz, Ph.D.'>
      |David thinks it's turtles all ...
    <heading refname='' toc='yes'>
      Sorting through Twisted...
      | a good sense of why they are ...

Simple enough, and identical to the SSAX utility I presented.

Writing The Outline Utility

The main work of Outline.java is performed by the class nu.xom.Builder. This class builds an in-memory XOM object based on an XML source. One surprise I found is that if you specify a class initializer of true, XOM will insist on validation, even for XML documents that do not specify a DTD. In other words, all such documents will throw a ValidityException (but this might be system dependend upon installed Java XML parsers). The best approach is probably to omit an initialization flag, and let XOM figure out the best parser.

Outline.java utility

import nu.xom.*;
import java.io.IOException;

public class Outline {
  public static void main(String[] args) {
    try {
      // Use 'Builder(true)' to require validation
      Builder parser = new Builder();
      Document doc = parser.build(args[0]);
      showElement(doc.getRootElement(), 0);
    catch (ValidityException ex) {
      System.err.println(args[0]+" is invalid.");
    catch (ParseException ex) {
      System.err.println(args[0]+" is not well-formed.");
    catch (java.io.IOException ex) {
      System.err.println(args[0]+" cannot be read");
  private static void showElement(Element element, int level) {
    // Show the tag, along with its attributes
    indent(level, "<"+element.getLocalName());
    for (int i=0; i < element.getAttributeCount(); i++) {
      Attribute attr = element.getAttribute(i);
      System.out.print(" "+attr.getLocalName()+"='"+attr.getValue()+"'");

    // Now loop through child nodes
    for (int i=0; i < element.getChildCount(); i++) {
      Node node = element.getChild(i);
      if (node instanceof Text) {
        String text = node.getValue();
        if (text.length() > 30) {
          indent(level+1, "|"+text.substring(0,30)+"...\n");
      } else if (node instanceof Element) {
        showElement((Element)node, level+1);
  private static void indent(int level, String string) {
    for (int i=0; i < level; i++) { System.out.print("  "); }

The organization here is pretty straightforward. The method .showElement() displays the name and attributes of each element, then recurses to its children, incremementing an indent level on each recursion.

In designing this utility, I took an illustrative misstep. The class Element has a method .getChildElements() that returns a traversable list of elements--excluding other Node objects from the enumeration. On its face, using this enumeration would seem more straightforward; the method is, in fact, widely useful since you can optionally limit the enumeration to children with a given name. Since an Element also has a .getValue() method to retrieve the PCDATA, it would seem like we could grab these content strings with each such child element.

Unfortunately, the semantics of .getValue() are slightly wrong for my intended use: .getValue() retrieves all the text inside a given tag, not only that portion of it leading up to the next child tag. For example, in the above example, the blurb inside the <bio> element is also thereby inside the enclosing <author> element, and author.getValue() retrieves stuff we do not want. What we are left with is walking through all the child nodes, and deciding what to do with each based on which subclass of Node we find. In particular, for purposes of this utility, I am only interested in Text and Element, not Comment, ProcessingInstruction, DocType or others.

Creating A New Xml Document

While, in my opinion, the main benefit of XML APIs in in parsing and traversing existing XML documents, sometimes we also want to create new documents within a program--or at least modify existing ones. For the simplest tasks, basic string operations really do suffice. But it's not hard to make a programming error, and fail to close a tag, or escape a special value. Using XOM for document creation guards against any such errors.

Here is a brief example, mostly taken from the XOM tutorial:


import nu.xom.*;
public class HelloWorld {
  public static void main(String[] args) {
    Element root = new Element("root");
    root.appendChild("Hello World!");
    Attribute foo = new Attribute("foo","bar");
    Document doc = new Document(root);
    String result = doc.toXML();

This outputs the following:

HelloWorld output

$ java HelloWorld
<?xml version="1.0"?>
<root foo="bar">Hello World!</root>

Beyond the basic, .appendChild() and .addAttribute() methods, the .copy(), .detach() method and the .remove*() collection are useful for rearranging XOM trees. Every tree, and every node inside it has a .toXML() method, and moreover this is the sole serialization format for XOM objects.


In writing my little Outline utility, I became curious about how convenient XOM really is compared to other APIs. Since the same utility was written for the last installment on SSAX, that makes for an obvious comparison. As it turns out, the Scheme and Java versions--using SSAX and XOM respectively--work out to pretty much the same length in lines, despite Schemes use of macros and dynamic typing. The coding style is very different, of course; and the Scheme is actually shorter in characters (if you ignore the larger number of comments in the SSAX version).

Readers of this column, however, will know that I often advocate Python--and specifically my own Gnosis Utilities APIs. I decided to make a quick shot at the same utility using the latest development version of gnosis.xml.objectify:

outline.py utility

from sys import stdin, stdout, stderr
from gnosis.xml.objectify import XML_Objectify, \
            make_instance, tagname, content, attributes
XML_Objectify.expat_kwargs['nspace_sep'] = None

def showNode(node, level=0):
    stdout.write("  "*level+"<"+tagname(node))
    for key,val in attributes(node).items():
        stdout.write(" %s='%s'" % (key,val))
    for child in content(node):
        if isinstance(child, unicode):
            if len(child) > 30:
                stdout.write("  "*(level+1)+"|"+child[:30]+"...\n")
            showNode(child, level+1)

I find it interesting that the Java version with XOM is still about 2.5 times as long (and also very close to the same speed, once I benchmarked against a large XML version of Shakespeare's Hamlet; Python's smaller startup time biases small tests).

Much of the extra code in Java relates to the various exception checking in the method Outline.main(). In Python, I can let the built in exception stacks do the work for me; of course, if I were to start doing something more meaningful with exceptions than just report them, then Python starts to look more like Java.

Obviously, however, programmers who want to use Java, for whatever good reasons, gain little benefit in knowing that libraries for Python or Scheme might allow more compact code. And Java certainly has a number of strengths that can merit the extra verboseness.


The real problem with DOM is that it is good enough for many purposes. There are far too many methods in DOM, many overlapping in purpose, and not named consistently. Committees and legacies do that. Despite that, everyone already has a DOM library handy--not just Java programmers, but also programmers of many other programming languages. It is too easy to just choose DOM because it is widespread and available.

Even though I would not generally choose to write in Java if I had the option to write Python (or maybe Ruby, or even Perl), XOM really does everything better than DOM. XOM is more correct, easier to learn, and more conistent. Most of its capabilities have not been covered in this introduction, but feel assured it has the usual collection of XML technologies incorporated: XPath, XSLT, XInclude, ability to interface with SAX and DOM, and so on.

If you are doing XML development in Java, and you are able to include a custom LGPL library in your application, I strongly recommend you give XOM a serious look.


The starting point for XOM is its homepage:


A good place to get a sense of why Elliote Rusty Harold things he needed to develop XOM is his presentation "What's Wrong with XML APIs (and how to fix them)":


The API documentation for XOM is quite good. It can be found at:


About The Author

Picture of Author David Mertz once led the desperate life of scholarship. David may be reached at [email protected]; his life pored over at http://gnosis.cx/publish/. Suggestions and recommendations on this, past, or future, columns are welcomed. Check out David's new book Text Processing in Python at http//gnosis.cx/TPiP/.