Xml Matters #30: The Text Encoding Initiative

An XML Dialect for Archival and Complex Documents

David Mertz, Ph.D.
Encoder, Gnosis Software, Inc.
August 2003

Nowadays, we usually think of XML as a markup technique utilized by programmers to encode computer-oriented data. Even DocBook and similar document-oriented DTDs focus on preparation of technical documentation. However, the real roots of XML are in the SGML community, which was largely composed of publishers, archivist, librarians and scholars. TEI is an XML Schema devoted to the markup of literary and linguistic texts. TEI allows useful abstractions of typographic features of source documents, but in a manner that allows useful searching, indexing, comparison, and print publication (features absent in mere photographic images of prior publications).


The Text Encoding Initiative (TEI) is a decade older than XML itself is, and older than other common documentation encoding XML Schemas like DocBook. Specifically, TEI was developed--in initial SGML form--in 1987, almost an eternity in "internet time." Despite its age, TEI works at a bit different level than any other markup format that I am aware of, and remains the best solution to a certain class of problems.

Basically, TEI aims to encode all the semantically significant aspects of literary texts, both old ones that predate XML technology (or indeed, computers in general), and newly created ones. Certainly the words themselves are the most important semantic feature of prose or poetical texts. But throughout the history of print--or of writing generally--other typographic features have been added to texts to encode subsidiary aspects of their meaning. Use of emphasis of various sorts, indentation and margins, tables, pagination, line breaks (as in verse), graphics and decorations, and other presentation elements have enhanced, elaborated, or modified the meanings of the words in books, essays, pamphlets, flyers, bills, poems, liturgicals, and all the other forms literary works take.

Moreover, mere typographic features sometimes require an interpretive effort to fully decipher; as a trivial example, many books use italics to mark both foreign words and to mark the titles of other books. The semantic aspect of italicization depends on the verbal context, but clearly authors usually use such marks with distinct intentions. TEI aims to allow the markup of texts in a way that distinguishes all such meaningful aspects.

TEI is not really just an XML Schema, it is more like a whole family of Schemas, related in their general goal, but varying in details of the tags and attributes used. In part, these Schemas differ in being supported by different DTDs (or RELAX NG Schemas). For example TEI-Lite is a greatly simplified form of TEI that aims to support "90% of the needs of 90% of the TEI user community." And there are other specializations available also. But even apart from actual specializations or subsets of the full TEI tag set, most users will utilize only a few of the tags available in the TEI DTD they are using. Different documents demand different markup, and different projects allow different degrees of granularity.

An Example

Project Gutenberg (PG) is an effort to provide free-of-cost versions of literary and historical works to a general audience. Thousands of titles have been transcribed and verified by PG contributors. The philsophy of Project Gutenberg is to project test as "plain vanilla ASCII." For PG publications any kind of emphasis is represented by capitalization, and paragraphs are divided with blank lines. While readers can reconstruct many conventional features of PG texts, TEI aims to mark these features explicitly, TEI is likely to be harder to read, unless rendered in a prettified form through some tranformation tool. But simultaneously, TEI is much easier to process and analyze with automated tools.

For example, PG makes available Shakespeare's King Lear. A short portion of this delightful play is transcribed as:

Project Gutenberg version of King Lear

Now by Apollo, king,
Thou swear'st thy gods in vain.

O vassal! miscreant!

[Laying his hand on his sword.]

Alb. and Corn.
Dear sir, forbear!

Kill thy physician, and the fee bestow
Upon the foul disease. Revoke thy gift,
Or, whilst I can vent clamour from my throat,
I'll tell thee thou dost evil.

A great deal of implicit semantic content could be added, using TEI, for example:

TEI version of King Lear

<p>Now by Apollo, king,<lb/>
Thou swear'st thy gods in vain.<lb/></p></sp>

<p>O vassal! miscreant!<lb/></p></sp>

<p><stage>Laying his hand on his sword.</stage><p>

<sp><speaker>Alb. and Corn.</speaker>
<p>Dear sir, forbear!<lb/></p></sp>

Kill thy physician, and the fee bestow<lb/>
Upon the foul disease. Revoke thy gift,<lb/>
Or, whilst I can vent clamour from my throat,<lb/>
I'll tell thee thou dost evil.<lb/></p></sp>

This markup is the same as suggested by David Seaman in the below referenced article. However, this style is perhaps still not sufficiently semantically rich. The tag <lb/> indicates a line break, which is simply a typographic feature that might be rendered in print. This is similar to HTML's <br/> element, or DocBook's <LiteralLayout>, or LaTeX's \newline. But TEI can be more specific if we wish to consider the verse structure of Shakespeare, e.g.:

TEI King Lear with explicit meter

<l part="Y">Do;</l>
<l part="N">Kill thy physician, and the fee bestow</l>
<l part="N">Upon the foul disease. Revoke thy gift,</l>
<l part="N">Or, whilst I can vent clamour from my throat,</l>
<l part="N">I'll tell thee thou dost evil.</l></lg></sp>

Here we describe Kent's speech as a "line group" rather than simply as a paragraph. Moreover, we optionally qualify each line, the first as "metrically incomplete," the rest as metrically complete. Such qualification is optional, and other part attribute values exist.

The degree of descriptive specificity lets scholars answer literary questions by automated means. For example, "Which speakers in Shakespeare plays tend to speak metrically incomplete lines (and how does that influence the intended perception of those characters)?" Working from a simple printed version, or from a markup format either purely typographically oriented like LaTeX or XSL-FO, or one at a coarse semantic level like DocBook or HTML (or "plain vanilla ASCII"), does nothing specifically to aid such research. TEI brings some automation to many areas of literary scholarship.

Moreover, from a document preparation perspective, we are free to utilize rich semantic marks, or to ignore them, as the publication requirements demand. As a somewhat simplistic example, think of those editions of the New Testament that mark all the speech directly attributed to Jesus in red ink. A TEI markup could simply indicate speakers, then such typographic issues could be decided as part of the print process. There is no need for something like an explicit color="red" attribute in the markup. Other works could be prepared using similar conventions for marking significant elements of the text.

More Capabilities

Obviously, most writing is not meter and poetry. But at every level, TEI tries to offer varying levels of typographic and semantic markup options. Understand here that the emphasis in TEI's typographic markup is not primarily focussed on how a text should be rendered in future publication, but rather on how it was rendered in the past. For example, philosophical scholars who study Kant's Critique of Pure Reason refer frequently to the "A" and the "B" sections--that is, Kant made a number of significant conceptual changes between his first and second edition. This convention is important enough that most editions of the Critique contain marginal notes indicating A and B page ranges. The marginal notes refer to where given paragraphs occurred in the original (German) revisions; generally, the modern editions--especially translated ones--have quite different pagination than these first editions. TEI is probably the only markup convention in widespread use that suffices to properly annotate the Critique.

At an inline markup level, TEI similarly allows for both typographic and semantic markup elements. For simple typographic notations, the tag <hi> can be used with the optional "rend" attribute. For example, <hi rend="italics"> indicates that a given word or phrase was or should be rendered in italics. But if it can be determined why a phrase was italicized (it is both unambiguous, and sufficient effort is available to analyze the text), you might choose to use a tag such as <title>, <foreign> or <emph> which more specifically describe the author and publishers reason for italicizing a phrase. Moreover, so marked, you might decide to, e.g., underline rather than italicize titles in a later edition.

The examples I have given only touch on the the markup capabilities in TEI. There is probably more available in TEI than any one person can remember all at once. Fortunately, as I mentioned, TEI is generally designed to be usefully subsetted for specific tasks. For a certain goal or project, the best strategy is to decide in advance which few TEI tags you want to use. Developers, writers, or archivists can learn such a small subset with only a reasonable effort.


In a general sense, any tool that can work with XML can work with TEI. DTDs for several TEI variations are available, as are XSLT stylesheets of various sorts. Naturally, customizations for working with TEI in emacs, Framemaker, and MS-Word can be found at the TEI website. An XMetal customization is also downloadable.

An interesting online tool provided by the initiative lets you customize an XSLT stylesheet to produce just the HTML output you desire. A web form lets you select a variety of options, then returns a stylesheet refelecting your customizations.

A number of scripts and tools are available for conversion of TEI formatted documents into ones closer to final print output. In the main, these target either LaTeX or XSL-FO as an intermediate format. These are the usual command-line tool chains that text processing programmers are accustomed to.

One tool I have grown quite fond of is the Java-based XML editors, oXygen. I have reviewed this product in the past, and since then it has continued to get better. In addition to being one of the first XML editors to incorporate RELAX NG support, the newest version of oXygen now includes a nice set of TEI templates--just select one, and oXygen creates a document skeleton (and assists you in validation and tag entry as you go along). But most impressive of all, the XSL-FO stylesheets that also come bundled "just work", I was able to create a couple nice looking PDFs out of my TEI tests without spending hours configuring tool chains and reading obscure HOWTOs.


The home page for the Text Encoding Initiative is:


Within the TEI website, you'll find a number of resources. And interesting look at the bare bones subset of elements is:


A step less simplified than bare bones TEI is TEI Lite. It has a tutorial at:


The extremely admirable Project Gutenberg has brought literary history to readers, free of charge and in electronic form, since 1971. A large collection of public domain literary works are available there, encoded as simple ASCII "etexts."


The copy of Shakespeare's King Lear I use as an illustration was found at:


For marking up King Lear in a TEI style, I found David Seaman's discussion of this same example helpful:


The Text Encoding Initiative's guide to compatible software can be found at:


The online "XSL TEI HTML stylesheet parameterization" tool is a nice way to develop custom HTML outputs:


Check out the oXygen XML editor at:


About The Author

Picture of Author David Mertz once led the desperate life of scholarship. David may be reached at [email protected]; his life pored over at http://gnosis.cx/publish/. Suggestions and recommendations on this, past, or future, columns are welcomed. Check out David's new book Text Processing in Python.