Charming Python: Installment #b2

Anygui: The universal graphical Python interface to come

David Mertz, Ph.D.
Random Proponent, Gnosis Software, Inc.
October, 2001

A very interesting project in the Python world has entered early development. The anygui project is intended as a wrapper API for a large number of underlying graphic toolkits. Once fully developed, a Python programmer will be able to call a common anygui function--for example, to create a window--then have the "best available" toolkit do the work. On Windows, the Win32 API might be used (or wxWindows); on MacOS, native calls; on BeOS, Bethon; on Linux, TKinter or GTK; on a telnet screen, ncurses--all depending on what is installed and available on a given machine. This article discusses the current development state of anygui, and the goals of the project.

What Is Python?

Python is a freely available, very-high-level, interpreted language developed by Guido van Rossum. It combines a clear syntax with powerful (but optional) object-oriented semantics. Python is available for almost every computer platform you might find yourself working on, and has strong portability between platforms.

Introduction: Write Once, Display Anywhere!

One of the great promises of Java, some years back when it was new, was the idea that one could "write once, run anywhere." At first, the user interface for Java was conceived mostly as applets embedded in web browsers. After a while, independent AWT applications became a more current notion. AWT, in turn, was generally superseded by Swing. Swing became Beans (building on Swing, but with additional requirements). Along the way, Swing classes moved around, and were added and substracted from Java versions.

A popular joke about Java is that it is "write once, debug everywhere." At the least, one certainly cannot write a Java application, and then feel any great confidence that it will run on the machine of every user of your application--unless you are willing to require considerable work by every user to get Java versions and configurations exactly right for your particular application. Whether the application runs depends on the Java version, and even on the particular vendor and platform of the Java Virtual Machine (JVM) installed.

In most respects, scripting languages like Python, Perl and TCL have better portability than Java does. For most Python scripts, for example, one can feel quite confident that a script delivered to multiple users will run correctly and identically on each target machine (possibly subject to a minimum version requirement--which is much simpler and more reliable than with Java). Of course, Java has many strong points besides raw portability: static typing (for those who want it), huge class libraries, excellent documentation, careful design choices). But those language considerations are not what I am interested in here.

The one aspect where a Python script falls far short of a Java application in terms of portability is in user interface. For a command-line tool, no problem. But as soon as you want complex user interaction--especially explicitly graphical interfaces--Python offers practically nothing. Java, for all its glitches and gotchas, really does usually provide Swing and AWT basics for every platform with a JVM. Python, to the contrary, simply does not have any "standard" GUI library.

Many people have stated their desire for a standard Python GUI. Tkinter comes moderately close--it has stable versions for Windows and Unix/X Window Sytem, and a passable MacOS version. But you also need TCL and TK installed on the system, and "minor" platforms like BeOS and OS/2 are left out. Various advocates have suggested that some other library/binding would be a better choice (there are many to choose from , see Resources). But each one supports a the subset of desired platforms; and most importantly, none has been uniformly accepted (and therefore, none comes standard with Python distributions). What one is left with is no way of writing an application with a user interface, and being sure that actual users can interface with it.

Rethinking The Problem

The Java philosophy has been to create a standard set of capabilities that every JVM must implement. The Java GUI exists by decree. A Pythonic approach might come from a different direction. Instead of commanding every machine to obey a certain API, figure out just what a given machine can do, then work from there. An API can emerge merely as a wrapper for what underlying platforms already do.

aygui does exactly what one would expect once one arrives at the Python way of thinking. Taking both its name and attitude from the anydbm module which finds the "best available" database backend at runtime, anygui finds the best available GUI backend on the sytem an anygui application is running on. The emphasis of anygui is to provide a usable set of interface elements that will work with every backend; particular backends might themselves be capable of more advanced interfaces, but anygui sticks to what is common to them all.

As of this writing, anygui is still an alpha-level project. For a subset of targetted backends, anygui does a pretty good job already. But since the goal is to be a (near-)universal wrapper, having a subset working is obviously not enough. Ultimately, if anygui succeeds in its goals, it will make sense to include anygui as a standard Python package with every Python distribution (much as anydbm or xml.sax are with included despite system-dependent backends). The point, after all, would be to make sure that every user already has it. By the way, anygui is pure Python; nothing in C/C++ or other lower-level languages is requires by anygui itself (of course, if it is to be useful, anygui should find some supporting GUI library).

Platforms And Pictures

For this column installment, I have taken a quick look at most of the working backends. There are a few more that are not yet implemented, or are only partially functional. In the working list are Tkinter, Java Swing, win32all, PyGTK, and wxPython. BeOS native (with Bethon) is only slightly working, but that might improve with a new daily build. PyQT and MacOS native are planned, and have development leads, but no implementations of these wrappers have been created yet; of course, this could also change any time. There also has been some discussion of a direct xlib backend, but no one has currently volunteered to lead that one.

All the above graphical toolkits work, or will work, in a fairly similar manner. I confess that my knowledge of most of the backend toolkits is weak--but from what I can see, the anygui API is largely similar to Tkinter. Essentially, the strategy is to create a bunch of widgets with callbacks, then enter a main event loop.

There are a few other backends that might exist in the future that break with the mold of the "normal" GUI toolkits. In some ways, these seem the most interesting, or at least novel. One planned backend is supposed to be led by your writer--but he has been remiss in developing initial versions. Hopefully matters will be better by the time you read this. My own little niche backend is ncurses. If this is present, it opens the possibility of running an anygui application even on a text-mode terminal such as a SSH/telnet session (or just plain Unix boxes without the X Window System).

Along the lines of a curses backend, anygui's project lead, Magnus Lie Hetland, has suggested a plain line-oriented fallback interface, maybe using readlines support. Under this scenario, menus would be reduced to prompts, followed by option selection, followed by feedback or results, and so on. The hypothetical anygui.backends.textgui would need nothing except STDIN and STDOUT to work, which is an interesting minimum for a program that might otherwise run--unchanged--in a sophisticated graphical, event-driven, WIMP interface (windows, icons, mouse pointer). Of course, so far it is just an idea.

One more oddball idea is equally interesting. Everyone has a web browser (almost), even if that browser happens to be lynx or links. Python's standard webbrowser module allows a flexible launch of a "best available" web browser, in a manner similar to anygui and its cousins. If that browser communicates with some sort of LOCALHOST server, all the basic interface devices one would want are available right in the web browser (buttons, input fields, text areas, graphics, etc). This backend is also in the planning stage.

A picture is worth a thousand words (at least sometimes). Since my editors, with good reason, do not want to publish a ten thousand word tome for this installment, let us take a look at a few screenshots instead. For illustration, a little toy application that plays with buttons, and enabling inactive ones is used (and its source is shown below). A couple text labels are also included. Other widget examples are contained in the test directory of the anygui distribution.

The first thing worth looking at is what we might think of as the "default default" backend, Tkinter. This version looks and acts pretty much as it should. However, the win.destroy() call is a bit funny--it doesn't immediately destroy the window (and close the application), but rather turns it into a ghost that disappears once it gets too much attention (like moving the window). Like I said, we are in alpha stages. The example was run under Win98:

Button application under Tkinter (on Win98)

Running under Windows, one also has an option of using Windows native calls with the win32all module. The ActivePython distribution, from ActiveState, has this by default; otherwise you need to obtain the module separately (also from ActiveState). Overall, this binding was the best behaved one I looked at--but that just reflects the version I tested on. Labels are placed a little differently than on Tkinter, which indicates that one might not get precisely the same visual aesthetics between backends:

Button application under Win32 (on Win98)

Next, I decided to move to a very different platform. Running Jython under OS/2 Warp 4, I got the below result. For some reason text labels got a gratuitous <html> prepended to them. But other than a fairly minor glitch, it starts to be impressive to run identical code on a platform so different:

Button application under Java Swing (on OS/2 Warp 4)

Moving next to a Linux platform, I ran my identical application on a system to PyGTK installed. Just for fun, I ran it under several different window managers. First Enlightenment:

Button application under GTK (on Enlightenment)

Then WindowMaker:

Button application under GTK (on WindowMaker)

Everything inside the window frame is the same with different window managers. Label justification and sizing was a bit different from under Windows (a few extra pixels would be needed to avoid cutting off words). I wasn't easily able to install wxPython on any of my systems, but the results should be similar.

The BeOS backend is in a more crude state right now. Even my toy application fails. However, the basic Window class works OK:

Window test application on BeOS r5

Some Self-same Code

The code that runs on all the witnessed platforms is quite simple. In my example, the first half of the program is simply a switch to allow manual selection of the backend to use from the command-line. In production code, you would not want that; but for early testing, something like what I do is helpful. Note, however, that all the tests whose screenshots are shown were simply run without any command-line options--selection of a backend was automatic. Let us look at the code:

'' text application for [anygui]

import sys
if len(sys.argv)==1 or sys.argv[1].upper()=='DEFAULT':
    from anygui import Window, Button, Application, Label
elif sys.argv[1].upper()=='TK':
    from anygui.backends.tkgui import Window, Button, Application, Label
elif sys.argv[1].upper()=='MSW':
    from anygui.backends.tkgui import Window, Button, Application, Label
elif sys.argv[1].upper()=='BEOS':
    from anygui.backends.beosgui import Window, Button, Application, Label
elif sys.argv[1].upper()=='GTK':
    from anygui.backends.gtkgui import Window, Button, Application, Label
elif sys.argv[1].upper()=='JAVA':
    from anygui.backends.javagui import Window, Button, Application, Label
elif sys.argv[1].upper()=='WX':
    from anygui.backends.wxgui import Window, Button, Application, Label

def say_hello():
    global bye
    print "Hello, world!"
app = Application()
win = Window(width=150, height=150, title="Beatles Lyric")
win.add(Label(x=10, y=10, width=140, text = "I don't know why you say..."))
bye = Button(x=30, y=40, width=70, height=30, text="Goodbye",
             action=lambda: win.destroy(), enabled=0)
win.add(Label(x=10, y=70, width=120, height=32, text = "When I say..."))
hi = Button(x=30, y=100, width=70, height=30, text="Hello", action=say_hello)

The skeleton of an application consists of just four steps: (1) create an application; (2) create one or more windows; (3) add some widgets to the windows; (4) call the event-loop. Widget options are all passed as named parameters.


Everything one needs to write basic "get some data, process it, and display some results" applications is already in the current alpha of anygui. The discussion lists contain a lot of interesting topics about more nuanced event-handling, view models, and so on. And moreover, the anygui API is yet to be officially documented. In terms of promise, however, anygui excites me more than any Python library I've seen in a good while. It is almost hard to imagine how convenient it will be able to transparently get a sophisticated user interface everywhere Python itself runs--all without changing a line of code for platform specifics.


The place to start exploring anygui is at its SourceForge page. From there, you can read the developer mailing lists, the documentation, download the latest version, and so on:

Cameron Laird has prepared a quite extensive list GUI bindings for Python. Laird's list contains brief comments about the status of each, and links to relevant project pages:

Damond Walker's tinter and Laurent Pelecq's enhanced ctinter can be found at the below link. curses itself is a standard Python module (that needs to have the actual ncurses library to work):

About The Author

Picture of Author David Mertz is steeped in syncretism; about the only thing that enlivens him even more than a good interactive multimedia library is the thought of a return of punch cards and batch-processing systems. David may be reached at [email protected]; his life pored over at Suggestions and recommendations on this, past, or future, columns are welcomed.