[1] San Francisco Examiner 20 October 1993: A-10.

[2] Schüklenk U, Mertz D. Christliche Kirchen und AIDS. In: Dahl E. (ed.) Die Lehre des Unheils. Hamburg: Carlsen, 1993: 263-279, 309-312.

[3] Chapman S. Dogma Disputed: Potential Endemic Heterosexual Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus in Australia. Australian Journal of Public Health 1992; 16: 128-41; US National Research Council. Social Impact of AIDS. Washington DC: National Academy Press, 1993.

[4] Editorial. Heterosexual AIDS: pessimism, pandemics, and plain hard facts. Lancet 1993; 341: 863-4.

[5] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Estimates of HIV Prevalence and Projected AIDS Cases: Summary of a Workshop, October 31-November 1, 1989. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 1990; 39: 110.

[6] Altman LK. Obstacle-Strewn Road to Rethinking the Numbers on AIDS. New York Times March 1, 1994: C3.

[7] Ports S. Needed (For Women and Children). AIDS: Cultural Analysis/Cultural Activism. October 1987; 43.

[8] Panos Institute. Triple Jeopardy: Women & AIDS. London: Panos Publications, 1990.

[9] US National Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report. November 1993.

[10] CDC. HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report., op.cit.

[11] National Centre in HIV Epidemiology and Clinical Research. Australian HIV Surveillance Report 1994; 10(1): 7, 15.

[12] CDC. HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report. op.cit.

[13] CDC. HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report. op.cit.

[14] Overall C. AIDS and Women: The (Hetero)Sexual Politics of HIV Infection. In: Overall C, Zion WP. (eds.) Perspectives on AIDS. Ethical and Social Issues. Ontario: Oxford University Press, 1991: 27-42.

[15] Overall. op.cit. 27.

[16] Overall. op.cit. 28.

[17] Overall's introduction states, [[yen]]Discussion will be chiefly confined to issues pertaining to the sexual transmission of AIDS, since this means of infection is responsible for at least 59 percent of AIDS cases in Canadian women.[[pi]] Overall. op.cit. 28.

[18] Overall. op.cit. 27.

[19] Federal Centre for AIDS. Surveillance update: AIDS in Canada. Ottawa: Federal Centre for AIDS, January 1991. (Courtesy of Gwen Bird, Pacific AIDS Resource Centre, Vancouver, B.C.)

[20] Schüklenk U, Mertz D, Richters J, The Bioethics Tabloids: How Professional Ethicists Have Fallen for the Myth of Heterosexual AIDS, Health Care Analysis 1995; 3(1): forthcoming. Independent confirmation is given in the following recently published Associated Press newpaper article: [[yen]]. . . there is no sign that AIDS has spread to any extent into the mainstream of American life, and many believe it probably never will. As for the typical American_someone who is straight, who is not very promiscuous, who does not shoot drugs or knowingly sleep with those who do_most experts agree the risk of AIDS falls somewhere between low and infinitesimal[[pi]] AP. April 17, 1994.

[21] Fumento M. The Myth of Heterosexual AIDS. Washington: Regnery Gateway, 1993: 78.

[22] Fumento. op.cit. 79.

[23] World Health Organization (Global Programme on AIDS). Semi-Annual Statistics 1992; 67: 201-204. Fifty-three African nations, for example, report a combined cumulative incidence of 152,463 AIDS cases, while the US reports 218,301 all by itself. National reports to the 1992 report are typically through only early 1992, or even 1991, with a somewhat greater delay on average in the reporting of African than US figures. However, it is clear that the US has many more AIDS cases than any single African nation, and most likely more than the continent as a whole.

[24] CDC. HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report. op.cit. According to this report, pediatric AIDS cases are approximately evenly divided between the sexes, as one would expect. However, these cases account for only 4,906 of all cumulative cases, and hence do not significantly affect the percentages.

[25] For example: Rieder I, Ruppelt P. (eds.) AIDS: The Women. San Francisco: Cleis Press, 1988; Richardson D. Women & AIDS. New York: Methuen, 1988; Panos Institute, op.cit; Lester B. Women AIDS: A Practical Guide for Those Who Help Others. New York: Continuum, 1989.

[26] CDC. op.cit.

[27] CDC. op.cit. Since we have no reason to believe that the breakdown of the actual risk-categories of those partners who did not specify risk is significantly different from those of partners with specified risk, we can safely assume that the vast majority of the men who allegedly pass AIDS on to their female partners, including those with unspecified risk, are IDUs.

[28] Schüklenk U, Mertz D, Richters J. op.cit. In essence, our argument there is that studies of sexual transmission efficiency of HIV male-to-female versus female-to-male, taken together with the base rates for potentially infective partners, are inconsistent with the total numbers of men and women reported in the heterosexual transmission category.

[29] We know that at least some men lie about their risk categories. According to New York pulic health official Rand Stoneburner, [[yen]]of 63 men (as of January 1989) who reported prostitute contact but denied other exposure, 42 were later found to have a history of contact with homosexual men or had engaged in intravenous drug abuse.[[pi]] Outside of New York City, thorough repeat interviews and contact tracing, which would reveal such initial misreports, are not performed. See Fumento. op.cit. ch.7.

[30] CDC. HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report. op.cit.

[31] Some of these 80,713 IDUs are women, however. The CDC document does not provide directly cumulative numbers of IDU female AIDS cases, but from October 1992 through September 1993, there were 6,891 female IDU AIDS cases and 19,142 male IDU AIDS cases. The cumulative 80,713 IDU AIDS are likely to break down in a ratio similar to this 1:3 ratio, i.e. there should be approximately sixty thousand male IDU AIDS cases cumulatively. See CDC. HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report. op.cit.

[32] Kinsey AC, Pomeroy WB, Martin CE. Sexual Behavior in the Human Male. Philadelphia: WB Saunders, 1948. Kinsey, for example, shows only 2.9% out of 19.8% of 25-year-old men who have some homosexual history are exclusively homosexual. The remaining 16.9% of all men, or 85% of men with some homosexual contacts, have some heterosexual contacts as well. This study shows a similar pattern in other age groups, with 30- and 35-year-old men with some homosexual history being exclusively homosexual at an even lower rate than 25-year-old men (but 20-, 40- and 45-year-old men having somewhat higher ratios). Kinsey's exact numbers have been disputed, but all reputable quantitative sexologists have found that a significant majority of [[yen]]men who have sex with men[[pi]] also have sex with women. See, for example, Masters WH, Johnson VE. Homosexuality in Perspective, Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1979; Harry J, DeVall WB. The Social Organization of Gay Males, New York: Praeger Publications, 1978; Hite, S. Hite Report on Male Sexuality, New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1981; Johnson AM, Wadsworth J, Welling K, Field J. Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific, 1994.

[33] Overall. op.cit. 32.

[34] Bell NK, Women and AIDS: Too Little, Too Late?. In: Holmes HB, Purdy LM. (eds.) Feminist Perspectives in Medical Ethics. Bloomington: Indianna University Press, Hypatia, Inc., 1992.

[35] Del Tempelis C, Shell G, Hoffman M, Benjamis R, Chjandler A, Francis D, 1987. Human immunodeficiency virus infection in women in the San Francisco Bay area (letter). Journal of the American Medical Association 258(4): 474-475; quoted in Bell. op.cit. 49.

[36] Bell. op.cit. 49. Bell cites figures stating that the increases of AIDS in women are among [[yen]]women who are heterosexual partners of bisexual men (16%) or of intravenous drug users (67%).[[pi]] Nonetheless, she goes on to warn against casual sex between women and men.

[37] Padian NS, Shiboski SC, Jewell NP. The Effect of Number of Exposures on the Risk of Heterosexual HIV Transmission. Journal of Infectious Diseases 1990; 161: 883-887.

[38] CDC. 1993 Revised Classification System for HIV Infection and Expanded Surveillance Case Definition for AIDS Among Adolescents and Adults. MMWR 1992; 41(RR-17): 1-19.

[39] National Safety Council. Accident Facts. Chicago: National Safety Council, 1992.

[40] For comparison, one might notice the 12,200 yearly fatal falls, 4,600 drownings, 4,200 fire deaths, or 2,900 suffocation deaths, none of which receive daily newspaper headlines or massive research funding, or are subjects of articles by bioethicists and feminists. National Safety Council. op.cit.

[41] Marmor M, Weiss LR, Lyden M, Weiss SH, Saxinger WC, Spira TJ, Feorino PM. Possible female-to-female transmission of human immunodeficiency virus [letter]. Annals of Internal Medicine 1986; 105: 969. Monzon OT, Capellan JMB. Female-to-female transmission of HIV [letter]. Lancet 1987; 2: 40-41.

[42] Chu SY, Buehler JW, Fleming PL, Berkelman RL. Epidemiology of reported cases of AIDS in lesbians, United States 1980_89. American Journal of Public Health 1990; 80: 1380_1. Chu SY, Hammett TA, Buehler JW. Update: epidemiology of reported cases of AIDS in women who report sex only with other women, United States, 1980_1991 [letter]. AIDS 1992; 6: 518_19.

[43] Bell NK. Women and AIDS: Too Little, Too Late? In: Bequaert-Holmes H, Purdy LM, eds. Feminist Perspectives in Medical Ethics. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1992: 53.

44 Rieder I, Ruppelt P. (eds.) AIDS: The Women. San Francisco: Cleis Press, 1988.

45 Adams ML. All That Rubber, All That Talk: Lesbians and Safer Sex. In: Rieder I, Ruppelt P. (eds.) AIDS: The Women. op.cit.

46 Richardson, D. Women & AIDS. New York: Methuen, 1988: ch.4 (Lesbians and AIDS).

[47] Denenberg R. A Decade of Denial: Lesbians and HIV. On Our Backs 1991; July/August: 38-42.

[48] Guinan ME, Hardy A. Epidemiology of AIDS in Women in the US: 1981-1986. JAMA 1987; 257(15): 2042.

49 Chapman S. op.cit. 138.

[50] Christian S. Specter of AIDS Worries a Third of Dating Adults. Los Angeles Times Sunday, September 11, 1994; 14.

[51] Wolf N. Fire with Fire: The New Female Power and How It Will Change the 21st Century. New York: Random House, 1994: 135.