Re: Fwd: L&A Test Question

From: Arthur Keller <voting_at_kellers_dot_org>
Date: Mon Jul 24 2006 - 21:37:50 CDT

"Program testing can be used to show the presence of bugs, but never
to show their absence."

-- E.W. Dijkstra, 1970

from: EWD249, page 7 (see )

published in: DIJKSTRA, E. W. 1972. Notes on structured programming,
in Structured Programming, by O.J. Dahl, E. W. Dijkstra, and C. A.
R.Hoare, Academic Press

I believe most would consider E.W. Dijkstra (1930-2002) to have been
a reputable computer expert.

Best regards,

At 4:12 PM -0600 7/22/06, Kathy Dopp wrote:
>Can anyone help Mark on the shortcomings of L&A testing?
>---------- Forwarded message ----------
>From: Mark Halvorson <>
>Date: Jul 22, 2006 10:03 AM
>Subject: L&A Test Question
>To: Kathy Dopp <>
>Hi Kathy,
>Hope you're having a good summer. We are gearing up to observe our
>first statewide election audit.
>I'm trying to find a statement by a reputable computer expert,
>organization or a study commenting on the effectiveness of an L&A test
>in catching ballot programming errors and assuring the machines operate
>properly. I have searched the usual places and all I've found is an
>assessment for DRE's and a paper by John Washburn on doing a thorough
>L&A test.
>Any ideas you have would be appreciated.
>Take care,
>Mark Halvorson
>Citizens for Election Integrity Minnesota
>OVC-discuss mailing list

Arthur M. Keller, Ph.D., 3881 Corina Way, Palo Alto, CA  94303-4507
tel +1(650)424-0202, fax +1(650)424-0424
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Received on Mon Jul 31 23:17:07 2006

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